اصلی ترین و اساسی ترین نکته این سیستم آموزشی استفاده از شاخ و برگ در نمودار درختی معروف به TKO TREE میباشد . تا به حال تا حدی با درخت آشنا شدیم و یاد گرفتیم که درخت چیست و چگونه میتوانیم Reading ها و listening ها رو به درخت تبدیل کنیم و به کلاس ارائه کنیم ولی نکته مهم دیگری که هنوز تمرین نکرده ایم نحوه شروع ساخت درخت از صفر هست .
برای مثال در امتحان تافل سوال خواهند داد که در مورد , برای مثال ” home ” حرف بزنید. کاری رو که هر زبان آموز موظف به تمرین آن هست تهیه و گسترش درخت برای تمام موارد از جمله متون و یا دیبیت ها
- اولین قدم برای شروع نگارش یا مکالمه با استفاده از سیستم نوشتن topic یا همان موضوع اصلی در ساقه اصلی درخت میباشد به این شکل دقت کنینشکل کلی درختtko
|Main idea1||Main idea2||Main idea3||Main idea4||Main idea5||Main idea6||Main idea7||Main idea8||Main idea9||Main idea10|
|S Sp.I 1||S Sp.I 2||S Sp.I 3||S Sp.I 4||S Sp.I 5||S Sp.I 6||S Sp.I 7||S Sp.I 8||S Sp.I 9||S Sp.I 10|
- اولین قدم برای شروع نگارش یا مکالمه با استفاده از سیستم نوشتن topic یا همان موضوع اصلی در ساقه اصلی درخت میباشد
- بعد از نوشتن موضوع اصلی تلاش کنید تا تمام ایده هایی را که به ذهنتان و در باره ایده اصلی میرسد را در شاخه های درجه اول بنویسید
- حال شما یک درخت دارید که تاپیک ” topic ” آن نوشته شده و ایده های اصلی درباره این تاپیک نیز آماده هستند
در همین ساعت 12 موضوع اصلی را نوشته و ایده های اصلی آن را گسترش دهید
و اما برای گسترش درخت :
- موضوع اصلی را مینویسیم ( topic )
- ایده های اصلی درباره موضوع اصلی را مینویسیم ( main ideas )
- ایده های پشتیبانی کننده ایده های اصلی را مینویسیم ( supporting ideas )
- ایده های پشتیبانی کننده ایده های پشتیبانی کننده را مینویسیم ( sub- supporting ideas )
- شاخه ها را با استفاه از لینگر ها بهم وصل میکنیم.
- متون را اماده میکنیم
برای یادگیری بیشتر نحوه گسترش ایده های اصلی به ایده های پشتیبانی کننده و همچنین نحوه تبدیل ایده ها ی بزرگتر به ایده های کوچکتر به صفحات بعدی رجوع کنید
بنابراین 1. تنه اصلی (topic ) را مینویسیم 2. شاخه های اصلی (main ideas ) رو مینویسیم 3. شاخه های اصلی را با استفاده از تکنیک های صفحه قبل گسترش میدهیم
نمونه درخت یکی از زبان آموزان دقت کنید : درخت خانه ملیکا جواندار
اما مهمترین مرحله گسترش شاخه های درجه اول به شاخه های درجه دوم و سوم و چهارم و تا جایی که به بن بست برسیم هست . بدیم منظور از روش های زیر استفاده میکنیم .
|شرح دادن، توصيف كردن، تعريف كردن|
|حدس زدن، فرض و گمان كردن – انديشيدن، تفكر كردن،|
|ارزيابي كردن،قيمت كردن، سنجيدن،شماره يا عدد، چيزي رامعين كردن||Evaluate|
|پيشنهاد دادن، نظر دادن، گفتن، اظهار عقيده كردن|
|شناسائيكردن، تشخيصدادن، تعيينهويتكردن|
|توضيح دادن، روشن كردن، باتوضيح روشن||Explain|
|له و عليه ،موافق و مخالف||Pros ‘n cons|
سود , منفعت ,مزیت ,زيان، بي فايدگي , عيب
|رسيدگي كردن (به)، ملاحظه كردن، تفكر||Consider|
|بامثال فهمانيدن، بانمونه نشان دادن||Exemplify|
|مقايسه كردن، برابركردن، باهم سنجيدن||Compare|
|هم سنجي، مغايرت،|
|منظور، مقصود، عمد–نظرداشتن، قصد داشتن،|
|تجربیات خود را توضیح د|
|استدلال كردن، دليلو برهان اوردن|
|سبب، علت، موجب، انگيزه، هدف،|
برای تمرین بیشتر تمام درخت ها ی ساخته شده را با استفاده از تاکتیکهای فوق گسترش دهید
برای تمرین بیستر درخت های متون زیر را استخراج کنید و به پشتیبان های سیستم ارسال کنید
In the class
I am at school. I am in the class. My friend jack is reading a book . Jack is reading his book. Jack is not playing. Jack is not playing with his brother. His brother, Nicolas, is playing with his friends. He is not studying. He is not reading. He is not practicing.
I am at school. I am at school yard. We are free now. The children are playing . They are playing in the yard. They are playing sports in the yard. They are playing different sports in the yard. They are playing sports in the yard. They are playing different sports in the school yard. Some boys are playing soccer. My brother, Alex , is a goal keeper. My friend Sam, is a goal kicker. He is kicking the ball now.
A family tree
I am Rose. I am from a large family. I love my family. My parents are john and Rita. My grandparents are sally and David. Lucy and nick are my sister and brother. I have three uncles and two aunts and 25 cousins
A favorite food
John is a boy. He is a good boy. He is a tall boy. He is a handsome boy. His breakfast is very big. His breakfast is milk , butter , jam , cheese , toast, and two eggs. He loves fried eggs. He drinks two glasses of orange juice with his breakfast every day
A favorite car
Jennifer is a woman. She is 38. She is a good woman. She has a car. Her car is ford. But she doesn’t like ford. She loves Rolls-Royces. Rolls-Royces is her favorite car. Her favorite car is a black Rolls-Royce.
That is a beautiful view. Look at the beautiful sky. It is blue. The clouds are white. They aren’t yellow. They aren’t green. They aren’t gray. The sun is yellow. The sun is in the sky. The mountains are brown. The trees are green . And the flowers are pink and purple and red .
Alex, jack and Maria are roommates. They are university students. They are good friends. Alex is a nurse at a hospital. Jack is a typist at an office. And Maria is a waitress at a Chinese restaurant
Modern furniture in the apartment
Jack is an old man. He is 62. He has an apartment. His apartment is modern. It is a modern apartment. It has modern furniture. The kitchen has some modern cupboards, a fridge, and a stove. He has a big living room. There is a big TV in his living room. a sofa , a coffee table and a bookcase are in the living room. He has a mirror in his bedroom.
A favorite meal
Katy is a girl. She is a beautiful girl. She is a rich girl. She has a car. She eats breakfast every day. She eats dinner. She doesn’t eat lunch. She doesn’t like lunch. Dinner is her favorite meal
Jane is a girl. She is lucky. She is a lucky girl. She has a rich father. Her father is rich. He is Mr. Robinson. He has a supermarket. He has a supermarket with a lot of fruits and vegetables. The apples, bananas, oranges, pears , grapes and peaches are on the right. The potatoes, onions , cucumbers, cabbages , tomatoes and carrots are on the left. The fruits are very fresh
A letter from a vacation
Dear Katy ,
It’s the last day of my vacation. I am on a vacation. On Monday , I was in the forest with my parents. On Tuesday , mom and I were on the ski slopes. The ski slopes were really dangerous . On Wednesday , we were in the hotel’s pool most of the time because it was so cold out so we didn’t go out . I was hungry all the time and I am still hungry ,because the hotel food was not very good. On Thursday , dad and I went to the forest again. And today’s Saturday. Time to come back home.
Address , job , phone
Hi !my name is Jennifer Sanchez . I am a student here . My school is big. My address is 83 Johnson Drive , Oklahoma. My phone number is 555-2987. My school is near here But my office is far from here . my school is not far from here . my school is not far from my apartment. It is a nice school. It has large classes. It has beautiful plants. It has a big yard. It is a beautiful school with plants and flowers and trees in its yard. I love my school. I love my teachers, too.
Back on the farm garden
My name is Elena Robinson. I m eighty-five. I am 85 years old. I was at school seventy eight years ago. I woke up early every morning and helped my mom. We lived on a farm , and sometimes I milked the cows. I walked 10 kilometers to school and 10 kilometers back from school. school started at seven thirty and finished at 12 o’clock. I learned reading , writing and math in the school. I learned a lot of things. after school I walked home with all my brothers and my sisters. In the evening, my mother and I cooked the dinner. We didn’t watch TV, but we played a lot of games
Today is my birthday. I have a birthday party. Some kids are singing songs . My brother jack is playing the guitar. My sister Maria is playing the piano. Some of my friends are dancing Arabic and some others are dancing Azeri. Alex and Sara are eating nuts. We are having a good time.
It is a very cold day today. This is Alex. He is twenty. he is a tall boy . he is a fit boy. He is not fat . he is a very young boy. He is very strong. he is a very handsome boy. He is wearing a jacket.. he is not wearing a coat. he is not cold. He is not wearing a hat. He isn’t wearing gloves. He isn’t wearing boots. But Sara is cold. She is wearing a yellow hat. She is wearing a sweatshirt. She is wearing warm sweatshirt. She is wearing gloves . she is wearing a hat. She is wearing boots. She isn’t wearing running shoes.
Computer , TV
I have a computer. It is not a TV. It is not an X-BOX. It is a good computer. It has speakers. It has two big speakers. I love my speakers. My computer has headphones , too. They are expensive headphones. I love my headphones , too. There is a big black box next to my computer. It is a case. It is a computer case. It a powerful computer case. It has a fan. It has a CPU . it has a Hard. It has everything in it. My computer , has a keyboard , too. I can type with it. I can type with the keyboard. It is a good keyboard. It has a monitor too. It has a big monitor. It has a 42 inch monitor. i don’t have a TV . I don’t have an X-box. I don’t have a play station.
Look at my family picture. This is a photo of my family. I am from a large family. My family is nice. My name is martin my wife’s name is Alison. She is a hairdresser. My son’s name is David. My daughter’s name is Jane. She is a doctor. Her husband is a barber. He is a good barber. His name is Joe.
Favorite team- car
Hi ! I am Robert Nielsen . I am a student. I am twenty. I am from Chicago. My favorite car is Chevrolet . and my favorite team is the bulls. My father doesn’t like soccer. He likes tennis. His favorite sport is tennis. And his favorite car is ford.
In my room
I am in my room now. The trees are outside. the trees are in the yard. The trees are outside the window. My deck is near the window. My bed is near my desk. My bookcase is near my desk. I have a big bookcase. I love my bookcase. There are a lot of books in my bookcase. The is a dictionary in my bookcase. There is a picture above my bookcase. It is my picture. There is a Quran on top of it. I love Quran. It is my Quran. I love my books. I love all of my books. I am doing my homework now. I always do my homework. My book is in front of my. My book is on the desk. I am looking at my book. I am erasing some words in my notebook now. I am using my eraser.
In the class
This is our class. Janet is standing in front of the class. Miss Robinson is sitting at her desk. She is geography teacher. She is looking at the students and she is listening to Janet. Janet is talking about the cities and countries of the world. There is a map on the wall. She is pointing to the map on the wall. she is showing the cities and countries on the map . the students are looking at her . the students are listening to her. She is a smart student. She is always the top student. She is always the best student in the class
Rose , is a high school student . she works as a cashier in a grocery store. She makes 9 $ an hour. She works every day. She works everyday at night. she works every weeknight. She works every weeknight from 4:00 until 8:00. She is very tired when she gets home. And she doesn’t have much time for her homework. So her grades are bad. Her grades aren’t good. Her grades aren’t very good. Her grade aren’t very good at all. She is not happy . she is not happy with her grades
Job- hometown- favorites
Hi. My name is brad. I am brad Wilson .my first name is brad. My family name is Wilson. I am from san Francisco . I come from san Francisco , California , but now I live and work in LA . I have a very small apartment downtown. I am a waiter and I’m also a drama student. I study in the mornings and I work in the evenings. I work in an Italian-American restaurant. I love Italian food. But I don’t like Mexican food usually eat Italian food. I normally drink coffee after food. , but I don’t drink tea because I don’t like it. I speak three languages : English , Spanish and a little French
My whole family is sick
My whole family is sick. Mom has a terrible headache and my dad has a terrible sore throat. My two sisters have bad colds. My grandpa has a fever and my grandma has the flu. We all have an appointment. We all have an appointment with our family doctor. Our family doctor is a very kind woman. She is a beautiful woman. She is a thin woman but she is a very good doctor. We have to get better soon. Because this weekend is my sister’s wedding party.
This is carol and dean’s apartment. Their apartment is on the first floor. There is a garage next to their apartment building. There are gray mountains behind their apartment. There is a big yard. there is swing and a slide in their yard. There are trees and flowers in their yard. Their apartment is very modern. They have modern furniture in their apartment.
Tom Robins is young. He is a young boy. He is about twenty. He is tall and thin. He has short straight brown hair. He has a mustache. He has a square face with a wide mouth and some gold teeth. His eyes are small, green and close together. He has thick, dark brown eyebrows. He has a beard too. Today, he is wearing striped jeans and a red jacket.
We are on vacation
We are on vacation in San Diego this week. Our hotel is very nice- old and comfortable. The people are very friendly. The food is delicious and cheap, and the cafes are wonderful. San Diego is beautiful. It is a very big city. There are a lot of new buildings in it. It isn’t an expensive city. But the weather, it is awful. It is wet and cold.
Jack and Jane
What can you do on the internet?
You can use the internet for many things. You can shop for a car or a house or a book or a pair of shoes. You can plan a vacation. You can watch videos. you can download games or music. You can read. You can write. You can chat. You can chat with your friends in the Australia . you can play online games . you send a letter. You can send an email. You can play chess with a partner in Mexico city. You can do everything.
Yesterday in the park
At three o’clock yesterday afternoon , tom and Fred went to the park. the weather was good, and the park was beautiful. they walked in the park for two hours and talked about many things . at five o’clock, they had ice-cream. At five-thirty , tom said goodbye to Fred and left the park. He got home at six. First , he did his homework . then he had dinner and went to bed at nine.
At the international high school
There is an international high school in our city . it is a bit=g school . there are about six hundred students at this crowded high school. the students are from many countries. Many of them are from Asia . Others are from Africa and Europe.
All of the classes are in English. The students are all trying to get good grades because they want to go to good universities.
Sako , kamal and farid are from different countries, and they are good friends. Sako is from Japan. His native language is Japanese , and he speaks Farsi, too. Kamal is from turkey. He came to Tehran with his father. His father works as an engineer. Farid is Iranian. He is from Tabriz. He is helping his friends , sako and kamal , with their Farsi.
All three of them want to study at a large university. None of them want to go to a small college.
My neighborhood in Canada
My name is kenji sasaki . I’m from Japan, but now I live and work in Toronto. I am a student here in English language classes at a small college.
I live in an apartment building . it’s on the corner of olive street and oak avenue. There’s a big olive tree in front of the building . there’s a park across the street. There are a lot of oak trees in the park. The trees are beautiful in the summer. A lot of my neighbors are from different countries . the people next to my building are from Indonesia . the family across from the Indonesians is from Colombia.
The stores in this neighborhood are always busy. There’s a Korean drugstore and an Armenian flower shop. A Chinese church is next to the flower shop. There are three restaurants on olive street : one Mexican , one Japanese , and one morocco-Italian-American.
The Johnson’s’ house
The Johnson’ apartment is very nice. There are five rooms in their apartment : a living room , a dining room , a kitchen , a bedroom , and a bathroom. There is a couch in the living room . there are also two armchairs and a bookcase. The Johnsons have all kinds of books in their bookcase . in the corner , there is a table with a lamp on it . in the kitchen . there is a cupboard , a small yellow table with two chairs , a stove ,and a refrigerator. The refrigerator is next to the cupboard . it is full of food : ice cream , orange juice , butter , meat , fruit , and there are a lot of eggs in it . there are six chairs and a table in the dining room . the Johnson’s’ apartment is not very large , but it is very comfortable .