آموزش قسمت دوم امتحان آیلتس :قسمت reading .در قسمت reading   ما 60 دقیقه وقت نیاز خواهد داشت . چه آیلتس آکادمیک باشه و چه آیلتس جنرال 60 دقیقه مهلت این قسمت خواهد بود تا 40 سوال رو جواب بدیم

Reading  از مهمترین قسمتهای امتحان هست که براحتی میتونین نمره بیارین . البته اکثر کاندیدا های امتحان معمولا از قسمت رضایت کافی رو ندارن و معمولا خودشون رو مقابل قسمت reading  ضعیف میبنن

3 تا متن بهتون میدن  که موارد زیر در اونها برای هر زبان آموز مورد بررسی قرار میگیره

reading for gist, reading for main ideas, reading for detail, skimming, understanding logical argument, recognizing writers’ opinions, attitudes and purpose.

آیلتس آکادمیک : توی آیلتس آکادمیک کاندیداها 3 تا مبحث متن درازی رو خواهند خود  . این متن ها از کتاب ها و روزنامه ها و یا جورنال ها و مقاله های بین اللمللی استخراج شده اند

آیلتی جنرال : توی آیلتس جنرال متن نخواهیم داشت . و به عوض متن , قسمت هایی از روزنامه ها و مجله ها استخراج میشه و در واقعع اتفاق های روزمره مورد بررسی قرار میگیرن .

ما تو این قسمت متن خوانی آیلتس آکادمیک رو مورد بررسی قرار میدیم چون اصلی تر هس :

متن شماره 1 :

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-3, which are based on reading passage 1 below.

 

Bilingualism in children

A

One misguided legacy of over a hundred years of writing on bilingualism is that children’s intelligence will suffer if they are bilingual. Some of the earliest research into bilingualism examined whether bilingual children were ahead or behind monolingual children on IQ tests. From the 1920s through to the 1960s, the tendency was to find monolingual children ahead of bilinguals on IQ tests. The conclusion was that bilingual children were mentally confused. Having two languages in the brain, it was said, disrupted effective thinking. It was argued that having one well-developed language was superior to having two half-developed languages.

B

The idea that bilinguals may have lower IQ still exists among many people, particularly monolinguals. However, we now know that this early research was misconceived and incorrect. First, such research often gave bilinguals an IQ test in their weaker language – usually English. Had bilinguals been tested in Welsh or Spanish or Hebrew, a different result may have been found. The testing of bilinguals was thus unfair. Second, like was not compared with like. Bilinguals tended to come from, for example, impoverished New York or rural Welsh backgrounds. The monolinguals tended to come from more middle class, urban families. Working class bilinguals were often compared with middle class monolinguals. So the results were more likely to be due to social class difference than language differences. The comparison of monolinguals and bilinguals was unfair.

C

The most recent research from Canada, the United States and Wales suggests that bilinguals are, at least, equal to monolinguals on IQ tests. When bilinguals have two well-developed languages (in the research literature called balanced bilinguals), bilinguals tend to show a slight superiority in IQ tests compared with monolinguals. This is the received psychological wisdom of the moment and is good news for raising bilingual children. Take for example, a child who can operate in either language in the curriculum in the school. That child is likely to be ahead on IQ tests compared with similar (same gender, social class and age) monolinguals. Far from making people mentally confused, bilingualism is now associated with a mild degree of intellectual superiority.

D

One note of caution needs to be sounded. IQ tests probably do not measure intelligence. IQ tests measure a small sample of the broadest concept of intelligence. IQ tests are simply paper and pencil tests where only ’right and wrong’ answers are allowed. Is all intelligence summed up in such right and wrong pencil and paper tests? Isn’t there a wider variety of intelligences that important in everyday functioning and everyday life?

E

Many questions need answering. Do we only define an intelligent person as somebody who obtains a high score on an IQ tests? Are the only intelligent people those who belong to high IQ organizations such as MENSA? Is there social intelligence, musical intelligence, military intelligence, marketing intelligence, motoring intelligence, political intelligence? Are all, or indeed any, of these forms of intelligence measured by a simple pencil and paper IQ test which demands a single, acceptable, correct solution to each question? Defining what constitutes intelligent behavior requires a personal value judgment as to what type of behavior, and what kind of person is more worth.

F

The current state of psychological wisdom about bilingual children is that , where two languages are relatively well developed , bilinguals have thinking advantages over monolinguals . take an example . a child is asked a simple question : how many uses can you think of a brick ? some students give two or three answers only . they can think of building walls , building a house and perhaps that is all . another child scribbles away , pouring out ideas one after the other : blocking up a rabbit hole , breaking a window , using as bird bath , as a plumb line , as an abstract sculpture in an art exhibition .

G

Research across different continents of the world shows that bilinguals tend to be more fluent , flexible , original , and elaborate in their answers to this type of open-ended question . the person who can think of a few answers tend to be termed a convergent thinker . they coverage onto a few acceptable conventional answers. People who think of lots of different uses of unusual items (e.g. a brick , tin can , cardboard box ) are called divergers . divergers like a variety of answers to a question and are imaginative and fluent in their thinking .

H

Here are other dimensions in thinking where approximately ‘balanced ‘ bilinguals may have temporary and occasionally permanent advantages over monolinguals : increased sensitivity to communication , a slightly speedier , movement through the stages of cognitive development , and being less fixed on the sounds of words and more centered on the meaning of words . such ability to move away from the sounds of words and fix on the meaning of the words tend to be a temporary advantage for bilinguals around the ages four to six . this advantage may mean an initial head start in learning to read and learning to think about languages .

“ bilingualism : the ability to speak two languages

“ monolingual : using or speaking only one language

 

همین که متن رو مشاهده کردین شروع به درآوردن درخت متن میکنین

هر پاراگراف رو بصورت شاخه ای از درخت بررسی کرده و ایده کلی متن رو روی این درخت میزارین

خوشبختانه چون تو امتحان آیلتس سوالها دم دستتون هستن میتونین کلمات مربوط به تنه اصلی درخت رو  خط کشیده و واسه خودتون مشخص کنین

کل این کار باید 1 دقیقه از کل وقت شما رو بگیره

بعد از این 1 دقیقه شما بایستی تقریبا تمام متن رو درک کرده باشین

اگه میبینین که بعد از یک دقیقه هنوز مطالب رو درک نکردین , یک دقیقه دیگه اضافه وقت بزارین و دوباره از اول , قدم شماره 1 رو انجام بدبن

خوب الان لغات اصلی درخت واستون مشخص شده دراومدن و اونارو میبینین

و. راحت متن رو کد بندی و حد بندی کردین و تقریبا تمام قسنت های متن رو میدونین که چی گفتن

به سوالها برمیگردیم

درخت هر سوال رو در میاریم

به متن رجوع میکنیم

طبق کد بندی که واسه پاراگرافها کردیم دنبال مرجعی واسه سوال میگیردیم

و جواب رو طبق درخت اون اراگراف درمیاریم.

به مثال زیر اگه دقت کنین راحت میتونین موضوع رو درک کنین که چه جوری با استفاده از درخت جواب رو پیدا خواهید کرد.

Bilingualism in children

A

One misguided legacy of over a hundred years of writing on bilingualism is that children’s intelligence will suffer if they are bilingual. Some of the earliest research into bilingualism examined whether bilingual children were ahead or behind monolingual children on IQ tests. From the 1920s through to the 1960s, the tendency was to find monolingual children ahead of bilinguals on IQ tests. The conclusion was that bilingual children were mentally confused. Having two languages in the brain, it was said, disrupted effective thinking. It was argued that having one well-developed language was superior to having two half-developed languages.

B

The idea that bilinguals may have lower IQ still exists among many people, particularly monolinguals. However, we now know that this early research was misconceived and incorrect. First, such research often gave bilinguals an IQ test in their weaker language – usually English. Had bilinguals been tested in Welsh or Spanish or Hebrew, a different result may have been found. The testing of bilinguals was thus unfair. Second, like was not compared with like. Bilinguals tended to come from, for example, impoverished New York or rural Welsh backgrounds. The monolinguals tended to come from more middle class, urban families. Working class bilinguals were often compared with middle class monolinguals. So the results were more likely to be due to social class difference than language differences. The comparison of monolinguals and bilinguals was unfair.

C

The most recent research from Canada, the United States and Wales suggests that bilinguals are, at least, equal to monolinguals on IQ tests. When bilinguals have two well-developed languages (in the research literature called balanced bilinguals), bilinguals tend to show a slight superiority in IQ tests compared with monolinguals. This is the received psychological wisdom of the moment and is good news for raising bilingual children. Take for example, a child who can operate in either language in the curriculum in the school. That child is likely to be ahead on IQ tests compared with similar (same gender, social class and age) monolinguals. Far from making people mentally confused, bilingualism is now associated with a mild degree of intellectual superiority.

D

One note of caution needs to be sounded. IQ tests probably do not measure intelligence. IQ tests measure a small sample of the broadest concept of intelligence. IQ tests are simply paper and pencil tests where only ’right and wrong’ answers are allowed. Is all intelligence summed up in such right and wrong pencil and paper tests? Isn’t there a wider variety of intelligences that important in everyday functioning and everyday life?

E

Many questions need answering. Do we only define an intelligent person as somebody who obtains a high score on an IQ tests? Are the only intelligent people those who belong to high IQ organizations such as MENSA? Is there social intelligence, musical intelligence, military intelligence, marketing intelligence, motoring intelligence, political intelligence? Are all, or indeed any, of these forms of intelligence measured by a simple pencil and paper IQ test which demands a single, acceptable, correct solution to each question? Defining what constitutes intelligent behavior requires a personal value judgment as to what type of behavior, and what kind of person is more worth.

F

The current state of psychological wisdom about bilingual children is that , where two languages are relatively well developed , bilinguals have thinking advantages over monolinguals . take an example . a child is asked a simple question : how many uses can you think of a brick ? some students give two or three answers only . they can think of building walls , building a house and perhaps that is all . another child scribbles away , pouring out ideas one after the other : blocking up a rabbit hole , breaking a window , using as bird bath , as a plumb line , as an abstract sculpture in an art exhibition .

G

Research across different continents of the world shows that bilinguals tend to be more fluent , flexible , original , and elaborate in their answers to this type of open-ended question . the person who can think of a few answers tend to be termed a convergent thinker . they coverage onto a few acceptable conventional answers. People who think of lots of different uses of unusual items (e.g. a brick , tin can , cardboard box ) are called divergers . divergers like a variety of answers to a question and are imaginative and fluent in their thinking .

H

Here are other dimensions in thinking where approximately ‘balanced ‘ bilinguals may have temporary and occasionally permanent advantages over monolinguals : increased sensitivity to communication , a slightly speedier , movement through the stages of cognitive development , and being less fixed on the sounds of words and more centered on the meaning of words . such ability to move away from the sounds of words and fix on the meaning of the words tend to be a temporary advantage for bilinguals around the ages four to six . this advantage may mean an initial head start in learning to read and learning to think about languages

همونطور که تو بالا مشاهده میکنین , تو اولین نگاه 1 دقیقه ای بایستی که شما تمام اون موارد قرمز شده بالا رو درست مثله همون چیزی که تو فارسی واستون اتفاق میافته رو دیده باشین و بتونین که تمام این موارد رو واسه خودتون تفکیک کنین و بدونین که تو هر پاراگراف چه چیزی نوشته شده هس . در ئاقع بتونین درخت پاراگراف ها رو استخراج کنین

اگه به درخت هر پاراگراف نگاه کنین متوجه میشین که به چه راحتی خواهید توئنست تمام این شاخه ها رو کنار هم بزارین و اون استحکام بین لغات رو دربیارین

حالا به سوال ها نگاه میکنین و با توجه به تفکیک بندی سوال ها برمیگردین ودرختتون رو آنالیز میکنین

حالا که یاد گرفتین چطور باید امتحان reading  آیلتس رو بدین , وقت اون رسیده که شروع کنین و امتحانات آیلتس زیر رو سپری کنین.

بعد از اتمام آخرین امتحان آیلتس , شما آماده آیلتس واقعی هستین و میتونین با خیال راحت برین و تو امتحان ثبت نام کنین

فقط لطفا حواستون باشه که تا وقتی که شما تکالیف درس ها رو انجام نداده باشین, نخواهین تونست , امتحان بعد از اون رو بدین

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