آموزش بخش نگارش تافل

نگارش در امتحان تافل از دو سوال تشکیل شده .

سوال  اول که به عنوان نگارش ترکیبی ( integrated writing task ) نامیده میشود .  ابتدا یک متن رو مشاهده میکنین و بعد یک فایل درباره متن میشنوین و سپس سوال ارتباط آنها را میپرشد .

سوال دوم که  به عنوان نگارش تکی ( independent writing task  ) شناخته میشود . ابتدا به شما یک موضوع اصلی میدهند و میگویند درباره این موضوع بنویسین.

واسه هر کدام از سوالها به شکلی که توضیح داده شده عمل میکنین .

مطمعن باشین که از این دو قسمت نمره 30 رو خواهید گرفت .

سوال اول قسمت نگارش  : متن میدهند , که باید بخوانید و فایل صوتی میدهند که باید گوش دهید . و بعد سوال میپرسند

  1. 3 دقیقه وقت دارین تا متن را نخوانید
  2. فقط هایلایت کنین
  3. هایلابت شده ها شاخه های شما هستند . به هم وصل کنید و ارتباط آنها را پیدا کنین ( درختش رو در بیارین )
  4. به فایل صوتی گوش بدین
  5. درختش رو استخراج کنین
  6. به سولی که میپرسه دقت کنین و ببینین که ازتون خواسته که چه مدلی درختارو به هم وصل کنین
  7. دو تا درخت رو طبق مورد سوال به هم وصل کنین
  8. برای این اتصال یک پاراگراف معرفی بدین به عنوان ( introduction paragraph )
  9. سپس بدنه رو بگین ( body paragraph ) که میتونه بیش از 1 پاراگراف باشه
  10. در نهات یه نتیجه بگیرین ( conclusion paragraph )
  11. از نظر گرامر و لغت و ساختا و علائم بررسی کنین
  12. 20 دقیقه وقت دارید
  13. باید 225 لغت رو بنویسین . 255 لغت تقریبا 4 تا پاراگراف میشه . یا مساوی با سه چهارم یه برگه A4 میشه .

لغات مربوط به متن و فایل شنیداری را ,  حداقل 2 بار با مدرس خود تکرار کنید و برای جلسه بعد ,  برای تمام لغات مثال یادداشت کرده و به کلاس ارائه دهید

Q.1. Read the passage. On a piece of paper, take notes on the main points of the reading passage.

Time: 3 minutes

Historically , schools in the united states have borrowed the European system of school organization , a system that separates students into grades  chronological age. In general , children begin formal schooling at the age of six in what is referred to as the first grade.  for the most part , students progress through twelve grades ; however , some students who do not meet minimum requirements for a particular grades may be asked to repeat the year.

Graded schools are divided into primary grades, intermediate grades , and secondary grades. Primary education includes grades 1 through 5 or 6 , and may also provide kindergarten as a preparation for first grade. Referred to as elementary school , these grades are usually taught by one teacher in a self-contained classroom. Intermediate grades begin with grades 6 or 7 and offer three years of instruction. At this level , teams of teachers may collaborate to provide subject-based classes similar to those offered in high school. viewed as a preparation for high school , intermediate education is known as junior high school. at grade 9 or 10 , secondary school begins . classes taught by subject specialists usually last about fifty minutes to allow a student ten  minutes to move to next class before it begins at the top of the hour. At the end of twelve successful grades of instruction, students are eligible for a secondary school diploma, more commonly called a high school diploma

بعد از اتمام استخراج شاخه های متن سوال اول , به یک فایل صوتی درباره همین متن گوش دهید . فعلا برای تمرین بیشتر , قبل از گوش دادن به فایل صوتی , لغات مربوط به فایل شنیداری رو هم مرور کنین تا تو درک آن ایرادی نداشته باشید.

Now listen to the passage. On a piece of paper , take notes on the main points of the listening passage

[download-attachment id=”4232″ title=”TKO”]

برای راحتی آموزش متن فایل شنیداری براتون نوشته شده

Professor :

So what are the problems associated with the graded schools system ? well , for one thing , graded schools don’t take into account the …. The differences in academic readiness on the part of individual learners . and by that I mean that some six-year olds are simply not socially , mentally , or even physically mature enough to begin school , but others are ready in all those important ways by their fifth or even fourth birthdays . and uh…. By the time that girls and boys are in their early teens , we can see that there’s a significant difference in maturity , in …. In physical and social maturity but … they’re still grouped together in intermediate grades in a graded school system.

Okay , besides the obvious differences in individual readiness and maturity , the …. The whole issue of promotion needs to be reviewed . grades-level requirements don’t really deal with actual learning that has occurred , uh , in a positive way . many research studies confirm that repeating an entire year because some of the material is not learned contributes to …. To boredom , poor self-concept, and ….and eventually to higher drop-out rates . and since graded schools are using group expectations as measured by performance on standardized tests , this s another way to evaluate the group rather than the individual . so , what happens is that individual differences in how long it takes to learn a concept or … or the partial achievement of a grade-level curriculum…that is never addresses by the graded school system. Students who need more time to learn have to repeat material that they already know . students who can learn at a faster rate have to wait for the new material to be presented .so , as you can see , it’s not ideal .

به نکات اصلی آن دقت کنید

Topic : graded school system

Disadvantages

1.maturity :

First grade

6 years old

Intermediate

Boys ‘ girls

2.progress

Standardized tests

Repeat concepts

Penalizes capable

3.dropout rate

Repeat all

Learned part

به درخت نگاه کنین

  1. الان یه سوال ازتون میپرسه .

20 دقیقه وقت دارین تا  درخت ها را با هم مقایسه کرده و هر دو درخت را به متن معتبر تیدیل کرده و بعد از نگارش , آنها را به هم متصل کنید و تمام .

و اما سوال »

سوالی که از شما میپرسه

Now answer the following question :

q.1 : how does the information in the listening passage add to the ideas presented in the reading passage?

Time : 20 minutes

حال به نمونه اتصال درخت های دو تا فایل نگاه کنین

The graded school system , which groups students by age , is usually divided into primary , intermediate , and secondary grades . however , according to the lecture , there are several disadvantages to this type of system . in the first place , maturity is not considered . all students begin the first grade at six years of age ; however , many children are not mature enough to go to school at that age . in contrast , some younger children are ready for school before their sixth birthdays but are denied the opportunity to begin until they reach the required age of six . in addition , the disparity in the maturity of girls and boys is marked in the intermediate grades . nevertheless , they are still scheduled for classes according to age , not maturity . even more concerning is the problem of graded-level standards, which rely on testing to evaluate progress by age instead of by actual mastery on the part of individuals. The grade-level system is inefficient because it requires some learners to repeat concepts that they have already learned in order to master those that they still need to know . it also penalizes students who are capable of learning more material than the grade-level curriculum allows . furthermore , research shows a correlation between low-esteem and drop-out rates with the requirement that students repeat a calendar year because they have not learned part of the material for their grade.

میبینین:

فقط 3 تا لغت تقریبا سخت , که زیاد هم سخت نیستن

کلی لینکرTKO

کلی عبارتTKO

الان میبینین که چرا اونقدر روی لینکر ها و عبارات تاکید میکردم که خوب باید یاد بگیرین؟؟؟؟؟

سوال  دوم نگارش در امتحان :  موضوع میدهند و شما 30 دقیقه وقت دارین که بنویسید :

برای این حالت بدون درد سر

  1. درخت رو تشکیل بدین
  2. شاخه ها رو گسترش بدین
  3. شاخه ها رو بهم لینک کنین
  4. ابتدا یک پاراگراف معرفی بنویسید
  5. سپس بدنه اصلی درخت را بنویسید
  6. در نهایت یک نتیجه گیری کنید
  7. از نظر گرامر و لغت و ساختار و علائم بررسی کنین
  8. نیم ساعت وقت دارین و باید 300 لغت رو بنویسین . 300 لغت تقریبا انداره یک برگ A4   نوشته شده با دست خط ساده و یا اگه در حالت تایپ شده در نظر بگیریم در هر خط تقریبا 15 تا 20 لغت در برگه A4   با مارجین 1 سانتی متر قرار میگیرد . یعنی برای یک نگارش 300 کلمه ای حداقل باید 20 خط تایپ کرده باشین

به یک نونه سوال دقت کنین :

.

Q2:

In some classes, course grades are based solely on exams, while in other classes, grades are based more on class participation than on exams. Which type of grading do you prefer?.

 

  1. شاخه های اصلی و فرعی موضوع اصلی را یادداشت کنید

Notes ;

TOPIC: reasons why grades should be based more on exams than on participation

difficult for all students to talk in class

perhaps large classes

perhaps not enough class time

perhaps some students monopolize discussion

difficult for professor to evaluate

amount of speaking unrepresentative of knowledge

unfairness and inaccuracy of basing grades on speaking

 

  1. شاخه ها رو گسترش بدین
  2. شاخه ها رو به هم لینک کنین
  3. متن رو تایپ کنین

به نمونه متن نوشته شده  دقت کنید .

Sample :

Grades in some courses may be based either on exams or on class participation, and the professor should always choose the most appropriate grading for a course. However, for a typical course, I think that it is far more equitable to base course grades more on exam grades than on class participation. The following reasons support this opinion.

Unless the class is very small (and most university classes tend to be rather large), it can be very difficult for all students to get a chance to take part equally in discussions. In fact, the bigger the class, the more difficult it is for each student to participate. In normal-sized classes, it is quite difficult for each student to express opinions and demonstrate knowledge to the professor because there is simply not enough time for this to take place. Then, considering that some students tend to monopolize class time whether or not they are more knowledgeable than the rest of the class, it can be difficult for students who do not easily dominate discussions to demonstrate their strong preparation for class, their mastery of the subject matter, and their ability to explain the material.

Also, in a large class, it can be very difficult for the professor to evaluate fairly not only which students have mastered the material but also which students have not. The amount that a student speaks out in class is neither a clear indication nor an accurate measure of what the student has learned. It is not fair or accurate to assume that, because a particular student has not managed to speak out as much as other students in the class (particularly if there are many outspoken students in the class), the student has not learned as much as the others have. It is not fair to assume that the students who speak out most in class actually know the most.

Thus, in regular class situations, it seems far better for a professor to base course grades on exam grades rather than on class participation. During an exam, each student has an equal opportunity to demonstrate what he or she has learned, and after the exam, the professor can more easily evaluate the exams in a way that is both consistent and fair.

  1. برای اینکه شما بتونین یه نگارش بسیار خوبی رو داشته باشین درک انواع متون براتون ضروری هست . بهتره که بدونین که تو امریکای شمالی کلا 5 مدل نگارش داریم که هر کدوم حالت خاص خودش رو داره
  2. این مدل ها عبارتند از

 

TypesExample question
Agree / disagreeonly people who earn a lot of money are successful

1.    Introduction

2.    Reason / point  1

3.    Reason / point  2

4.    Reason / point  3

5.    Conclusion

PreferenceSome people prefer to study alone , others prefer to study in a group , which one do you prefer .
If / imaginaryIf you could visit any country in the world , which country would you like to visit
Description / explanationWhat are the characteristics of a good teacher
Comparison / contrastStudents at the universities often have different choices to live , living in the dormitory , living in the apartments . compare the advantages of living in the dormitory with the advantages of living in an apartment . which one would you prefer to live .

1.    Introduction

2.    Body 1: advantages and disadvantages of part A

3.    Body 2 : advantages and disadvantages of part B

4.    Body 3 : your preference

5.    Conclusion

 

و میبینین که به چه سادگی میتونی تمام سوال هایی رو که تو این قسمت ازتون میپرسند رو جواب بدین . ولی اینجا میخوام یه نکته دیگه رو بهتون بگم که بتونین پاراگراف ها رو تجزیه و تحلیل کنین و یا به راحتی به پاراگراف ها جواب بدین

هر پاراگراف از 3 قسمت اصلی تشکیل میشه که عبارتند از :

موضوع اصلی پاراگراف رو میگیم . درواقع خواننده با این جمله میفهمه که تنه اصلی این درخت چیهIntroduction / topic sentence
این درواقع قلب و تنه درخت این پاراگراف هست . تمام جزئیات یا تمام جمله های پشتیبانی کننده و شاخه های سطح دوم تو این قسمت قرار  میگیرن

Body part : the hart of your paragraph

Order of importance / chronology

در این قسمت در واقع همان جمله اول رو تو یه فرم دیگه بیان میکنین ولی به یه زبون دیگه و به خواننده یه ذره بیشتر از اون چیزی که قبلا تو تاپیک گفته بودین رو میگین تا بهش فرصت بدین تا از خودش سوال بپرسه و تو فکر برهConclusion / closing  sentence

و البته همانطور که قبلا تمرین کرده این برای هر نوع تمرین نگارش و یا گفتمان بایستی از مهارت های گسترش درختان استفاده کنین .

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