the noun

Introduction to nouns
Common and proper nouns
Concrete and abstract nouns
Irregular plural nouns: f to -ves
Irregular plural nouns: -en plurals
Irregular plural nouns: the base plural
Irregular plural nouns: mutant plurals
Irregular plural nouns: foreign plurals
origion of mutant pural
 Countable and uncountable 1
Countable and uncountable 2
Countable nouns with a/an and some
 A/an and the
 The 1
The 2 (school / the school etc.)
The 3 (children / the children)
 The 4 (the giraffe / the telephone / the piano etc. ; the + adjective)
Names with and without the 1
 Names with and without the 2
Singular and plural
Noun + noun (a tennis ball / a headache)
 No/none/any Nothing/nobody ect.
 Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty
 Some and any
All / all of most / most of no / none of etc.
 Both / both of neither / neither of either / either of
 All, every and whole
Each and every

 the verb

Intro to verb agreement
Auxiliary (helping) verbs
the funky -ed irregular verbs
the vowel shift irregular verbs
the irregular verbs get taken for a ride
the truly irregular verbs
Simple Verb Aspect
Progressive verb aspect
Perfect verb aspect
Progressive perfect verb aspect
Managing time with tense and aspect
Present continuous (I am doing)
Present simple (I do)
 Present continuous and present simple 1 (I am doing and I do)
 Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do)
Past simple (I did)
Past continuous (I was doing)
 Present perfect 1 (I have done)
 Present perfect 2 (I have done)
Present perfect continuous (I have been doing)
Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done)
 How long have you (been) …?
 For and Since When …? and How long …?
Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did)
 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did)
Past perfect (I had done)
 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing)
Have and have got
Used to (do)
 Present tenses (I am doing / I do) for the future
 (I’m) going to (do)
Will/shall 1
Will/shall 2
 I will and I’m going to
 Will be doing and will have done
When I do / When I’ve done When and if
 Question 1
Question 2 (Do you know where …? / He asked me where …)
 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so / I hope so etc.
Question tags (do you? isn’t it? ect.)
Question tags (do you? isn’t it? ect.)
Phrasal verbs 1 (General points)
 Phrasal verbs 2 (in/out)
Phrasal verbs 3 (out)
Phrasal verbs 4 – on/off (1)
Phrasal verbs 5 – on/off (2)
Phrasal verbs 6 (up/down)
Phrasal verbs 7 – up (1)
Phrasal verbs 8 – up (2)
 Phrasal verbs 9 (away/back)
Appendix 1: Regular and irregular verbs
Appendix 2: Present and past tenses
Appendix 3: The future

Modals and semi modals

Modal verbs
Can, could and (be) able to
Could (do) and could have (done)
 Must and can’t
May and might 1
 Have to and must
Must / mustn’t / needn’t
Should 1
 Had better / It’s time …
Can/Could/Would you … ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations)

verb + ….

Verb + -ing (enjoy doing / stop doing ect.)
Verb + to … (decide to … / forget to … etc.)
Verb (+ object) + to … (I want you to … ect.)
 Verb + -ing or to … 1 (remember/regret ect.)
Verb + -ing or to … 2 (try/need/help)
Verb + -ing or to … 3 (like / would like etc.)
Prefer and would rather
Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing
Be/get used to something (I’m used to …)
 Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing / accuse somebody of -ing etc.)
Expressions + -ing
To … (afraid to do) and preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing)
 See somebody do and see somebody doing

the modifier

Modifiers, like adjectives and adverbs, describe nouns and verbs. Let’s get descriptive! If you understand modifiers, you can learn to express yourself elegantly.

Choosing between definite and indefinite articles

how to use the articles

Introduction to adverbs
Meet the adverb
Using adverbs and adjectives
Identifying relative adverbs
Adjective order
commas with adjectives
Comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs
forming Comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs
Intensifiers and adverbs of degree
: To …, for … and so that …
 Adjective + to …
Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.)
 Adjectives – a nice new house, you look tired
 Adjectives – a nice new house, you look tired
Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quickly)
Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/late, hard/hardly)
 So and such
 Enough and too
Quite, pretty, rather and fairly
Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.)
 Comparison 2 (much better / any better / better and better / the sooner the better)
 Comparison 3 (as … as / than)
 Superlatives (the longest / the most enjoyable etc.)
 Word order 1 – verb + object; place and time
 Word order 2 – adverbs with the verb

 the preposition and the conjunction

Prepositions (in, out, before, after, with, without, just to name a few) help establish relationships in time, space, and among people and things. Conjunctions unite words; they attach phrases and clauses to one another. They’re super useful! Learn more about these two parts of speech here.

Meet the preposition
Prepositions about time
Prepositions about space
Prepositions of neither time nor space time and space
Common prepositions
Compound prepositions
Prepositional phrases
Meet the conjunction
Coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions
beginning sentences with conjunctions
 Although / though / even though – In spite of / despite
In case
 Unless – As long as – Provided/providing
As (As I walked along the street … / As I was hungry …)
 Like and as
 Like / as if / as though
 For, during and while
 By and until / By the time …
 At/on/in (time)
 On time and in time / At the end and in the end
 In/at/on (position) 1
 In/at/on (position) 2
In/at/on (position) 3
 In/on/at (other uses)
 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)
 Adjective + preposition 1
 Adjective + preposition 2
 Verb + preposition 1 (to and at)
 Verb + preposition 2 (about/for/of/after)
Verb + preposition 3 (about and of)
 Verb + preposition 4 (of/for/from/on)
 Verb + preposition 5 (in/into/with/to/on)

Syntax: sentences and clauses

Syntax involves arranging words to create logical phrases, clauses, and sentences. This is a big topic, so we’ll be covering a lot, including: dependent and independent clauses; simple, complex, compound, and compound-complex sentences; and phrases and clauses.

Simple and compound sentences
Rearranging simple and compound sentences
Complex and compound-complex sentences
Identifying subject and predicate
Identifying subject, direct object, and indirect object
Dependent and independent clauses
Relative clauses
: -ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.)
There … and it …
 Relative clauses 1 – clauses with who/that/which
Relative clauses 2 – clauses with and without who/that/which
 Relative clauses 3 – whose/whom/where
 Relative clauses 4 – extra information clauses (1)
 Relative clauses 5 – extra information clauses (2)
-ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)
 Still, yet and already – Any more / any longer / no longer

Syntax: conventions of standard English

Syntax involves arranging words to create logical phrases, clauses, and sentences. This is a big topic, so we’ll be covering a lot, including: subject-verb agreement, fragments, run-ons, and parallel structure.

Subject-verb agreement
Pronoun-antecedent agreement
Recognizing fragments
Recognizing run-ons and comma splices
Dangling modifiers
Parallel structure

conditionals / wish / hope

: If I do … and If I did …
 If I knew… I wish I knew …
 If I had known … I wish I had known …

passive and active

: Passive 1 (is done / was done)
 Passive 2 (be done / been done / being done)
 Passive 3
 It is said that … He is said to … He is supposed to …
 Have something done
have sb do sth
make sb do sthget sb to do sth
have sth done
make sth done
get sth done

tell / say / reported speech

 Reported speed 1 (He said that …)
 Reported speed 2


This is where we’ll talk about the conventions of Standard American English that aren’t exactly about grammar, but about STYLE. Harness the power of the sound of language; untangle frequently-confused words and expressions; and learn about why you probably shouldn’t wear a tuxedo to a beach party.

Frequently confused words: affect/effect
Frequently confused words: here-hear
Frequently confused words: there-their-they’re
Frequently confused words: too-to-two

Usage and Style

the comma and the apostrophe

Commas are the superheroes of punctuation! They can perform many different functions. Apostrophes are most often used to stand in for missing letters or to show possession. In the rarest of cases, they can be used to form plurals. Let’s learn more!

Three ways to end a sentence
Meet the comma
Punctuating lists
Salutations, valedictions, dates, and addresses
Commas and introductory elements
Commas in space and time
Salutations, valedictions, dates, and addresses
Commas and introductory elements
Commas in dialogue, tag questions, direct address, and yes-or-no responses
Meet the apostrophe
Introduction to contractions
Apostrophes and plurals
Introduction to the possessive
Advanced (plural) possession
Choosing between its and it’s
history of apostrophe
history of possessive apostrophe

Punctuation : the colon, semicolon, and more

Colons and semicolons are two valuable pieces of punctuation that separate sentence elements from each other. Learn more about how to use them here!

Introduction to colons
The colon as a separat
Introduction to semicolonsor
Using semicolons and commas
Using colons and semicolons
Italics, underlines, and quotes
Introduction to the parenthesis
Introduction to the dash
Dashes and hyphens
Introduction to the ellipsis
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